Kolkata Bengali: [Kolkata] ([About this sound] listen), also known as Calcutta / kælkk,[official name up to 2001] is the capital of West Bengal's Indian state.It is the seventh most populated city in India, according to the 2011 Indian census; the city had a population of4.5 million, while the suburban population took the number to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populated metropolitan area in India.Kolkata Megalopolis is the area surrounding Kolkata Metropolitan City with an additional population. Itis situated approximately 80 kilometers (50 mi) on the east side of the Hooghly River
It is the largest economic, cultural and educational hub of East India west of the border with Bangladesh, while the Kolkata Port is India's oldest functioning port and its only major river port.The city, dubbed the "City of Joy," is commonly considered India's "cultural capital" and as of 2019, six Nobel laureates were affiliated with the city. Recent estimates of the economy ofthe Kolkata Metropolitan Area ranged from $60 billion to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it the third most prosperous metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.
The three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled under Mughal suzerainty by the Nawab of Bengal in the late 17th century. Since the Nawab issued a trade license to East India Company in 1690, the Company built the area into an increasingly fortified trading post. In 1756, Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah seized Calcutta, and the next year the East India Company regained it. The East India company was powerful enough to abolisNizamat (local rule) in 1793, and claimed absolute area sovereignty.
Under the rule of the company, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories inIndia until 1911, when its perceived geographic disadvantages, coupled with the nationalism in Bengal, led to the capital's move to New Delhi.Calcutta was the hub of the Indian independence movement;it remains a hotbed of state politics of today.After Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, once the center of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, endured economic stagnation for several decades. As a nucleus of the Bengal Renaissance of the 19th and early 20th centuries, and a religiously andethnically diverse cultural hub in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, painting, music, theater, and literature.
Several Colkata people — including many Nobel laureates —have contributed to the arts, the sciences, and other fields.Community in Kolkata features idiosyncrasies that involve distinctly close-knit communities (paras) and intelligent freestyle exchanges (adda).West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is centered in the area, which also hostsvenerable, nationally important cultural institutions such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, and the
Asiatic Society, Indian Museum,and Indian National Library.Among qualified science institutions, Kolkata hosts India's Agri Horticultural Society, India's Geological Survey, India's Botanical Survey, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, theAssociation of Indian Science Congresses, India's Zoological Survey, India's Institution of Engineers, India's Anthropological Survey, and the Indian Public Health Association.While home to major cricketing venues and franchises, by focusing onfootball association and other sports, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities.